G. General Antiviral Candidates

General Antiviral Drug Candidates

May 21, 2020

I. Broad-Spectrum Agents for Patients with Severe Symptoms

Each candidate possesses its own special antiviral capabilities and target zones despite some similarities literally among different compounds. Please contact the host for the details if interested.

The main target zones of the following drugs in the human body are instructed in round brackets.

• Indacaterol (Upper respiratory tract -by inhalation.)
 
• Pentamidine (Alveolar walls, upper respiratory tract.)
 
• Fluvoxamine (Blood vessels, heart, brain, & alveolar walls.)[23]
 
• Losmapimod (Blood vessels, heart, brain, & alveolar walls.)[24]
 
• Ergometrine (Alveolar walls & upper respiratory tract )
 
• Ridogrel (Alveoli & upper respiratory tract )
 
• Opaganib (Upper respiratory tract & blood.)[19]
 
• Erythropoietin (Upper respiratory tract & blood.)[17-18]
 
• Fenfluramine (Alveolar walls & upper respiratory tract.)
 
• Tazemetostat (Upper respiratory tract & blood.)
 
• Acalabrutinib (Oxygen-rich spots near alveoli)[10]
 
• Alextinib (Alveolar walls, upper respiratory tract, & blood.)
 
• Selinexor (Blood, oxygen-rich zones, fatty acid.)[1-2]
 
• Dexamethasone (Upper respiratory tract)[3-5, 16]
 
• Colchicine (Blood & blood vessels.)[6-9, 15, 20]
 

II. Mild to Moderate Symptom-Related Agents

• Benzonatate-dry cough.
 
• Diclofenac-fever & pain.
 
• Famotidine-short breath [11-14, 22].
 
• Levocabastine-red eyes.
 

III. Symptom-Related Agents for Children

• Fluticasone (C22H27F3O4S)-short breath (main targets: upper respiratory tract & bronchi).
 
• Montelukast (C35H36ClNO3S)-short breath (main targets: alveoli & bronchi.)[21]


The drug list will be updated with the advancement of therapeutic practices.

[1] ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04349098. April 16, 2020.

[2] ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04355676. April 21, 2020.

[3] ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04325061. March 27, 2020.

[4] ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04327401. March 31, 2020.

[5] ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04347980. April 15, 2020.

[6] ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04328480. March 31, 2020.

[7] ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04350320. April 17, 2020.

[8] ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04355143. April 21, 2020.

[9] ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04375202. May 5, 2020.

[10] M. Roschewski et al., Sci. Immunol.10.1126/sciimmunol.abd0110 (2020).

[11] Brendan Borrell, doi:10.1126/science.abc4739.

[12] Janowitz T, et al. Gut 2020;0:1–6. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321852.

[13] Daniel E Freedberg, et al., doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.01.20086694.

[14] Robert W. Malone, et al., https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0340-7490.

[15] Spyridon G. Deftereos, et al., doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.13136.

[16] Peter W Horby, et al., doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.22.20137273.

[17] Azar Hadadi1, et al., J Med Virol., 08 April 2020.

[18] Hannelore Ehrenreich, et al., Molecular Medicine, 16 June 2020.

[19] "Severe COVID-19 patients benefit from RedHill’s opaganib", the pharma letter, 24-06-2020.

[20] Scarsi M, et al. Ann Rheum Dis 2020;0:1–4. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217712.

[21] Colin D. Funk& Ali Ardakani, Front. Pharmacol., 06 August 2020, doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.01214.

[22] Jeffrey F. Mather, et al, "Impact of Famotidine Use on Outcomes of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients", 2020 Aug 14. Am J Gastroenterol.

[23] Eric J. Lenze, at el., “Fluvoxamine vs Placebo and Clinical Deterioration in Outpatients With Symptomatic COVID-19”, JAMA, November 12, 2020.

[24] ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04511819. November 25, 2020.