1. The Conic Principle
A new law, The Conic Principle
, is disclosed here and it states
Objects form as groups on surfaces of multidimensional cones
This website is designed to exhibit beauty, perfection, and simplicity of mathematical structures embedded into objects in nature and science.
Three typical examples with the conic principle are the law of gravity, the Newtonian second law, and the Einsteinian conservation of mass-energy. Discovered by the scientist of VWorld International, a more specific example is that masses of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter meet the conic equation
(MIo )2 + (MEuropa )2+(MCallisto )2=(MGanymede )2 (1.1)
The error of eq.(1.1) is less than 0.2%. Similarly, masses of the five nitrogenous bases present in DNA and RNA also obey the conic equation of a different form
(MCytosine )(MUracil )(MAdenine )(MGuanine )=(MThymine )4 (1.2)
Current error of eq.(1.2) is less than 0.6% and its actual error is much smaller than 0.6% because this formula is a simplified one for brevity.
In addition to masses of objects which are easily available on the internet for tests, there are many conic equations for other types of parameters. Here is an example for orbital parameters of Earth, Mars, and the moon
(βEarth )(βMars )=(βMoon )2 (1.3)
where β is the ratio of the aphlion of a planetary object to its perihelion and they are named the apogee and the perigee, respectively, for the moon of Earth. The error of eq.(1.3) is about 0.12%.
2. Patterns of Biomolecules in Human Body
The well-known molecules in a human body follow perfect patterns describable by elementary equations, which also fall into the category of conic equations in a generalized meaning. Some examples are presented In Show Room I along with necessary materials for verification of the mathematical statement.
In the public domain, databases released by NIH, NASA, and NIST on their websites are believed to be indispensable assets for both theoretical analyses and computational experiments.
3. A Virtual Human for Clinical Trials
A virtual human has been created after efforts of more than eight years for clinical trials of molecular drugs, including antibodies and herb medicines. Nearly all endogenous molecules in a human body discovered by scientists so far are reassembled back into the virtual body, consisting of the major systems: nervous system, circulatory system, digestive system, endocrine system, immune system, respiratory system, etc. Other substances are also included such as elements in the periodic table, basic biochemical representations of viruses, bacteria, and so on.
Every system is further divided into subsystems with specific organs and tissues, which are represented by functional groups. Each group has numerous endogenous molecules to support its biochemical and physical activities.
Law-controlled reactions take place when a drug gets into the virtual human and they lead to pathological and efficacious results for the drug in meticulous details.
About three-thousand commercial and investigational drugs are used to verify the effectiveness and reliability of the virtual human. Almost 98% of available drugs on the market match their roles despite the inaccuracy of many given mechanisms published in the public domain. At present, more than 80% of drug candidates in clinical trials are either trivial ones or poorly fit their roles regarding their pathogenic targets.
The major functions that the virtual human cannot do currently: 1) estimation of half-life; 2) determination of dosages; 3) toxicity (not side effects) of many drugs; 4) penetration of BBB.
One of the numerous successful examples in practice is to confirm that Chinese traditional vinegars are the best medicine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease up to now.
A new law is one of the core elements with the virtual human that precisely quantifies interactions between drugs and biomolecules in a human body. The clinical trials of a drug molecule can be completed in a few hours or a couple of days for brief reviews of its efficacies and side effects.
4. Drug Candidates from Old Drugs for Treating COVID-19
To be qualified as an antiviral against COVID-19, an old drug must meet four essential conditions:
• Good safety records of therapeutic practices to ensure " first, do no harm."
• Clear antiviral capabilities with conventional or nonconventional mechanisms such as Remdesivir, Favipiravir, and
• Specific target zones in a human body such as alveolar walls, upper respiratory tract, blood, brain, heart, liver, kidney, etc.
• Reliable water-solvable or lipid-solvable properties to clarify applicable scopes of a drug for mild, moderate or severe symptoms.
Examples of drug candidates are displayed in directories respectively, based on the test results through the virtual human. Note that some of them have been listed in the database website: ClinicalTrials.gov
. It is very important to point out that the drug list in this webiste is used as the reference of professional clinical trials only, it does not directly serve any therapeutic use.
From time to time, new laws in physics, chemistry, and biology will be displayed here as an independent part.
Materials in a showroom of the front page will be moved to directories of archives after a period of time of demonstration.
Showroom I: Patterns of Biomolecules